Effects of midazolam and phenobarbital on brain oxidative reactions induced by pentylenetetrazole in a convulsion model

Yukiko Arai, Shigeru Maeda, Hitoshi Higuchi, Yumiko Tomoyasu, Masahiko Shimada, Takuya Miyawaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Context: Brain oxidative reactions are involved in epilepsy as well as neurodegenerative diseases. In animal convulsion models, some anticonvulsants have been found to suppress oxidative reactions associated with convulsions. However, the effect of anticonvulsants on brain oxidative reactions has not fully been clarified. Objective: Midazolam and phenobarbital are often used as an intravenous anesthetic, and are known to have anticonvulsive effect, but antioxidative effect of these drugs has rarely been studied. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of these drugs on the degree of convulsions and brain oxidative reactions in an animal convulsion model. Materials and methods: In order to evaluate brain oxidative reactions, we measured malondialdehyde (MDA) level and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA expression level in the brain of mice in a convulsion model generated by a single injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). We evaluated the effects of midazolam and phenobarbital on the degree of PTZ-induced convulsions and on the changes in brain MDA level and HO-1 mRNA expression level. Results: After PTZ injection, severe convulsions were observed in all mice. MDA level was increased in the whole brain, while HO-1 mRNA expression level was increased only in the hippocampus. Both midazolam and phenobarbital prevented the convulsions and suppressed the increase in both MDA level and HO-1 mRNA expression level in the brain. Conclusion: In this study, both midazolam and phenobarbital suppressed PTZ-induced MDA and HO-1 reactions in the brain, suggesting that these drugs inhibit brain oxidative reactions in a convulsion model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)216-221
Number of pages6
JournalImmunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2012


  • Anesthetic
  • Convulsion
  • Midazolam
  • Oxidative reaction
  • Phenobarbital

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology


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