Effects of different water percentages in non-surfactant water-in-diesel emulsion fuel on the performance and exhaust emissions of a small-scale industrial burner

Ili Fatimah Abd Razak, Wira Jazair Yahya, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin, Mohd Rashid, Muhammad Ahmar Zuber, Hasannuddin Abd Kadir, Syahrullail Samion, Hirofumi Noge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In a previous study, a device that combined two existing mixing methods to produce water-in-diesel emulsion fuel (W/D) without surfactant had been developed and tested on a small-scale engine by Ithnin et al. However, it is inapplicable for industrial burners with high fuel flow rate. Therefore, a device with a similar concept was developed in this study. W/D has been proven to improve combustion, but it was unknown if non-surfactant W/D made by the device can improve burner performance and exhaust emissions. The aim of this study is to analyse the fuel consumption, flame temperature and emissions of the industrial burner utilising Malaysian Diesel grade 2 (D2M) labelled as D2, surfactant-added W/D and non-surfactant W/D produced by the device. Both emulsion fuels tested contained 5%, 10% and 15% water by volume. Based on the comparative evaluation, the performance of non-surfactant W/D was comparable to surfactant-added W/D. Compared to D2, non-surfactant W/D reduced fuel consumption, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxides and hydrocarbons emissions by up to 17%, 53%, 34%, 24% and 44%, respectively. Although the increase in water content decreased the flame temperature, W/D with 5% water had higher flame temperature and had better fuel consumption than D2. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2385-2397
Number of pages13
JournalClean Technologies and Environmental Policy
Volume23
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Exhaust emission
  • Flame temperature
  • Industrial burner
  • Non-surfactant emulsion fuel
  • Water-in-diesel emulsion fuel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

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