This study was designed to evaluate the effects of recombinant human BMP-2 (rhBMP-2) injected into the palatal periosteal sites in Wister rats on bone formation. The implant sites were separately divided into four groups according to the dosage of rhBMP-2 : 0 μg, 0.1 μg, 0.5 μg and 1.0 μg. The rats were sacrificed at 3 weeks after implantation, followed by histopathologic observation and histometric evaluation of new bone. Implants had disappeared at every group and new bone formation was observed at 0.1 μg, 0.5 μg and 1.0 μg. New bone was continuous with the original bone at 0.5 μg and 1.0 μg. Thickness of new bone increased as the dosage increased from 0 μg to 0.5 μg (P<0.05), and did not significantly change as the dosage increased from 0.5 μg to 1.0 μg. These results suggested that rhBMP-2 injected into the palatal periosteal sites could lead to induce new bone formation, although its effects varied according to the dosage of rhBMP-2.