A microdose study of metformin was conducted to investigate the predictability of drug-drug interactions at the therapeutic dose (ThD). Healthy subjects received a microdose (100νg) or ThD (250mg) of metformin orally, with or without a potent and competitive multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) inhibitor, pyrimethamine (50mg, p.o.), in a crossover fashion. Pyrimethamine significantly reduced the renal clearance of metformin by 23 and 35% at the microdose and ThD, respectively. At ThD, but not at microdose, it caused significant increases in the maximum concentration (C max) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of metformin (142 and 139% of control values, respectively). Human canalicular membrane vesicles showed pyrimethamine-inhibitable metformin uptake. Pyrimethamine did not affect plasma lactate/pyruvate after ThD of metformin but significantly reduced the renal clearance of creatinine, thereby causing elevation of plasma creatinine level. This microdose study quantitatively predicted a drug-drug interaction involving the renal clearance of metformin at ThD by pyrimethamine. Pyrimethamine is a useful in vivo inhibitor of MATE proteins.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)