Effectiveness and stability of silane coupling agent incorporated in ‘universal’ adhesives

Kumiko Yoshihara, Noriyuki Nagaoka, Akinari Sonoda, Yukinori Maruo, Yoji Makita, Takumi Okihara, Masao Irie, Yasuhiro Yoshida, Bart Van Meerbeek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

130 Citations (Scopus)


Objective For bonding indirect restorations, some ‘universal’ adhesives incorporate a silane coupling agent to chemically bond to glass-rich ceramics so that a separate ceramic primer is claimed to be no longer needed. With this work, we investigated the effectiveness/stability of the silane coupling function of the silanecontaining experimentally prepared adhesives and Scotchbond Universal (3MESPE). Methods and materials Experimental adhesives consisted of Scotchbond Universal and the silane-free Clearfil S3 ND Quick (Kuraray Noritake) mixed with Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator (Kuraray Noritake) and the two adhesives to which γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) was added. Shear bond strength was measured onto silica-glass plates; the adhesive formulations were analyzed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, shear bond strength onto CAD-CAM composite blocks was measured without and after thermo-cycling ageing. Results A significantly higher bond strength was recorded when Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator was freshly mixed with the adhesive. Likewise, the experimental adhesives, to which γ-MPTS was added, revealed a significantly higher bond strength, but only when the adhesive was applied immediately after mixing; delayed application resulted in a significantly lower bond strength. FTIR and 13C NMR revealed hydrolysis and dehydration condensation to progress with the time after γ-MPTS was mixed with the two adhesives. After thermo-cycling, the bond strength onto CAD-CAM composite blocks remained stable only for the two adhesives with which Clearfil Porcelain Bond Activator was mixed. Significance Only the silane coupling effect of freshly prepared silanecontaining adhesives was effective. Clinically, the use of a separate silane primer or silane freshly mixed with the adhesive remains recommended to bond glass-rich ceramics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1218-1225
Number of pages8
JournalDental Materials
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2016


  • Bond strength
  • Coupling agent
  • FTIR
  • NMR
  • Silane
  • Universal adhesive

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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