Effectiveness and safety of low-concentrated ozonized water for the reduction of contamination in dental unit water lines

Keisuke Okubo, Takashi Ito, Yasuyoshi Shiota, Yusuke Kawata, Tadashi Yamamoto, Shogo Takashiba

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) with heterotrophic bacteria can cause problems in immune compromised patients (aged, tumor and organ transplantation-patients). We focused on the use of low-concentrated ozonized water (OZW) as the biofilm formation restraint system for DUWL. Here, we examined the effects of low-concentrated OZW on the growth of bacteria and related biofilm formation and harmfulness to dental unit components (DUCs) in vitro. Objectives: To evaluate the bactericidal effects of OZW on biofilms in DUWL and DUC in vitro. Methods: Low-concentrated OZW (0.4 mg/L) was generated using an OZS-PTDX generator. Heterotrophic bacterial biofilms in old DUWL tubes and Candia albicans solution (control microbe) were treated with OZW for 1 h with gentle agitation before static culturing for 96 h in Reasoner's 2A liquid media. The control solutions were 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), chlorinated tap water (TW), and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) amounts of the microbes were measured and the biofilms of these microbes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, surfaces of DUC soaked in OZW and TW were observed by SEM. Results: The OZW reduced ATP levels in microbes to 50% compared to TW and PBS treatment, although CPC reduced it below detection limits. SEM observation revealed deformation of microbes cultured with OZW, whereas no changes were seen on DUC surfaces. Conclusions: Low-concentrated OZW is bactericidal against heterotrophic bacteria biofilms and it is not harmful to DUC, suggesting that it might be useful in preventing DUWL contamination.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere02306
JournalHeliyon
Volume5
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2019

Fingerprint

Tooth
Tooth Components
Safety
Water
Biofilms
Cetylpyridinium
Electron Scanning Microscopy
Bacteria
Adenosine Triphosphate
Phosphates
Organ Transplantation
Limit of Detection
Observation
Growth

Keywords

  • Biofilm
  • Dental chair unit water line (DUWL)
  • Heterotrophic bacteria
  • Low-concentration
  • Materials science
  • Ozonized water

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Effectiveness and safety of low-concentrated ozonized water for the reduction of contamination in dental unit water lines. / Okubo, Keisuke; Ito, Takashi; Shiota, Yasuyoshi; Kawata, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Tadashi; Takashiba, Shogo.

In: Heliyon, Vol. 5, No. 8, e02306, 01.08.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Effectiveness and safety of low-concentrated ozonized water for the reduction of contamination in dental unit water lines",
abstract = "Contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) with heterotrophic bacteria can cause problems in immune compromised patients (aged, tumor and organ transplantation-patients). We focused on the use of low-concentrated ozonized water (OZW) as the biofilm formation restraint system for DUWL. Here, we examined the effects of low-concentrated OZW on the growth of bacteria and related biofilm formation and harmfulness to dental unit components (DUCs) in vitro. Objectives: To evaluate the bactericidal effects of OZW on biofilms in DUWL and DUC in vitro. Methods: Low-concentrated OZW (0.4 mg/L) was generated using an OZS-PTDX generator. Heterotrophic bacterial biofilms in old DUWL tubes and Candia albicans solution (control microbe) were treated with OZW for 1 h with gentle agitation before static culturing for 96 h in Reasoner's 2A liquid media. The control solutions were 0.1{\%} cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), chlorinated tap water (TW), and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) amounts of the microbes were measured and the biofilms of these microbes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, surfaces of DUC soaked in OZW and TW were observed by SEM. Results: The OZW reduced ATP levels in microbes to 50{\%} compared to TW and PBS treatment, although CPC reduced it below detection limits. SEM observation revealed deformation of microbes cultured with OZW, whereas no changes were seen on DUC surfaces. Conclusions: Low-concentrated OZW is bactericidal against heterotrophic bacteria biofilms and it is not harmful to DUC, suggesting that it might be useful in preventing DUWL contamination.",
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AU - Yamamoto, Tadashi

AU - Takashiba, Shogo

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AB - Contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWL) with heterotrophic bacteria can cause problems in immune compromised patients (aged, tumor and organ transplantation-patients). We focused on the use of low-concentrated ozonized water (OZW) as the biofilm formation restraint system for DUWL. Here, we examined the effects of low-concentrated OZW on the growth of bacteria and related biofilm formation and harmfulness to dental unit components (DUCs) in vitro. Objectives: To evaluate the bactericidal effects of OZW on biofilms in DUWL and DUC in vitro. Methods: Low-concentrated OZW (0.4 mg/L) was generated using an OZS-PTDX generator. Heterotrophic bacterial biofilms in old DUWL tubes and Candia albicans solution (control microbe) were treated with OZW for 1 h with gentle agitation before static culturing for 96 h in Reasoner's 2A liquid media. The control solutions were 0.1% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), chlorinated tap water (TW), and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) amounts of the microbes were measured and the biofilms of these microbes were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, surfaces of DUC soaked in OZW and TW were observed by SEM. Results: The OZW reduced ATP levels in microbes to 50% compared to TW and PBS treatment, although CPC reduced it below detection limits. SEM observation revealed deformation of microbes cultured with OZW, whereas no changes were seen on DUC surfaces. Conclusions: Low-concentrated OZW is bactericidal against heterotrophic bacteria biofilms and it is not harmful to DUC, suggesting that it might be useful in preventing DUWL contamination.

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KW - Materials science

KW - Ozonized water

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