Purpose: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a major complication of lung transplantation (LTx). However, few studies on PTLD in Asian populations have been reported. We explored the characteristics of Japanese PTLD cases after LTx. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 195 cases of LTx at our institute. We summarized the clinical experiences of 7 PTLD cases and analyzed the patient characteristics and survival outcomes of patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 188) PTLD. Results: All PTLD patients were taking corticosteroids preoperatively (p = 0.0030), and the duration of preoperative corticosteroid therapy was significantly longer in the PTLD group (p = 0.0064) than in the non-PTLD group. The overall survival after LTx was significantly worse in the PTLD group (p = 0.027) than in the non-PLTD group. Among the three patients who died within 1 year after the PTLD onset, two died of opportunistic infections without residual PTLD lesions. Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) or bronchiolitis obliterans at an autopsy were diagnosed after PTLD treatment in four cases. Conclusions: Long-term preoperative corticosteroid therapy may be a risk factor for PTLD after LTx. Opportunistic infections are lethal complications of PTLD, regardless of the effectiveness of PTLD treatment. CLAD occurs at a high rate after PTLD treatment, and close monitoring is required.
- Chronic lung allograft rejection
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Lung transplant
- Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
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