Gefitinib is an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI). N-Nitrosamine-4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a potent carcinogen found in tobacco smoke, induces lung tumors in A/J mice. NNK induces cellular transformation resulting in the over-expression of EGFR. Accordingly, EGFR may be a target for cancer prevention. In this study, we investigated the effect of gefitinib on NNK-induced tumorigenesis and the carcinogenicity of gefitinib in A/J mice. A total of 180 four-week-old female A/J mice were randomly divided into six groups: group 1 (controls), treated with deionized water; group 2, treated with 5 mg/kg p.o. gefitinib; group 3, treated with 50 mg/kg p.o. gefitinib (to test the carcinogenicity of gefitinib); group 4 (controls for NNK treatment), treated with deionized water; group 5, treated with 5 mg/kg p.o. gefitinib; and group 6, treated with 50 mg/kg p.o. gefitinib and injected with NNK once at 8 weeks of age to test the chemopreventive activity of gefitinib. Gefitinib was given once a day, 5 days a week by gavage, beginning at 4 weeks of age and continuing for 26 weeks. All mice were sacrificed at 30 weeks of age. The multiplicities of the NNK-induced lung tumors were significantly suppressed in a dose-dependent manner. Gefitinib had no effect on body weight at a low dose. The administration of gefitinib alone for 26 weeks did not induce tumorigenesis; instead, it significantly suppressed the incidence of spontaneous tumors in the mice, in contrast with other anti-cancer agents. Gefitinib did not induce lung fibrosis when compared with control mice by Azan-Mallory staining. Our results suggest that gefitinib has a weak but significant chemopreventive effect with no carcinogenicity or pulmonary toxicity in A/J mice.
- A/J mice
- Pulmonary toxicity
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cancer Research