BACKGROUND: Despite a strong association between acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and cytomegalovirus reactivation (CMVR), the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR on nonrelapse mortality (NRM) has not been well studied. METHODS: We evaluated the impact of CMVR on NRM stratified according to the development of acute GVHD using a landmark method. This study included 6078 patients who received their first allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) with a preemptive strategy for CMVR between 2008 and 2017. RESULTS: The cumulative incidences of grade 2-4 acute GVHD (G24GVHD), CMVR by day 100, and CMV disease by day 365 were 37.3%, 52.1%, and 2.9%, respectively. Patients with G24GVHD were associated with the subsequent development of CMVR, and the presence of CMVR also increased the risk of G24GVHD. In a landmark analysis at day 65, the cumulative incidence of NRM at 1 year was 5.4%, 10.0%, 13.9%, and 19.7% in patients with G24GVHD-/CMVR-, G24GVHD-/CMVR+, G24GVHD+/CMVR-, and G24GVHD+/CMVR+, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, CMVR was respectively associated with an increased risk of NRM by day 365 in patients without G24GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.05; P < .001) and with G24GVHD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.70; P = .014), but the interaction between G24GVHD and CMVR was not significant (P = .326). Subgroup analyses suggested that the joint effect of acute GVHD and CMVR might vary according to the baseline characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: These data regarding the close relationship between acute GVHD and CMVR should provide important implications for the treatment strategy after HCT.
- acute graft-versus-host disease
- allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
- cytomegalovirus reactivation
- joint effect
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases