Edaravone is a potent scavenger of hydroxyl radicals and is quite successful in patients with acute cerebral ischemia, and several organ-protective effects have been reported. Treatment of human microvascular endothelial cells with edaravone (1.5 μM) resulted in the enhancement of transmonolayer electrical resistance coincident with cortical actin enhancement and redistribution of focal adhesion proteins and adherens junction proteins to the cell periphery. Edaravone also induced small GTPase Rac activation and focal adhesion kinase (FAK; Tyr576) phosphorylation associated with sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1 (S1P1) transactivation. S1P1 protein depletion by the short interfering RNA technique completely abolished edaravone-induced FAK (Tyr576) phosphorylation and Rac activation. This is the first report of edaravone-induced endothelial barrier enhancement coincident with focal adhesion remodeling and cytoskeletal rearrangement associated with Rac activation via S1P1 transactivation. Considering the well-established endothelial barrier-protective effect of S1P, endothelial barrier enhancement as a consequence of S1P1 transactivation may at least partly be the potent mechanisms for the organ-protective effect of edaravone and is suggestive of edaravone as a therapeutic agent against systemic vascular barrier disorder.
- Focal adhesion
- Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor type 1
- Transmonolayer electrical resistance
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology