Ecotoxicity and screening level ecotoxicological risk assessment of five antimicrobial agents: Triclosan, triclocarban, resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol

Ikumi Tamura, Kei Ichiro Kagota, Yusuke Yasuda, Saori Yoneda, Junpei Morita, Norihide Nakada, Yutaka Kameda, Kumiko Kimura, Norihisa Tatarazako, Hiroshi Yamamoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Acute and chronic (or sub-chronic) toxicity of five selected antimicrobial agents, including triclosan (TCS), triclocarban (TCC), resorcinol, phenoxyethanol and p-thymol, was investigated using the conventional three-aquatic-organism battery. These compounds are widely used in cosmetics and other personal care products and their ecological risk has recently become a significant concern. As results of toxicity tests, TCS was found to be most strongly toxic for green algae [e.g. 72h no observed effect concentration (NOEC) of 0.50μgl-1] among the selected compounds, followed by TCC, while TCC was more toxic or similar to TCS for Daphnia and fish (e.g. Daphnia 8day NOEC of 1.9μgl-1). Having compared the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) determined from the toxicity data with measured environmental concentrations (MEC), the preliminary ecological risk assessment of these five antimicrobials was conducted. The MEC/PNEC ratios of TCS and TCC were over 1 for some monitoring data, especially in urban streams with watershed areas without sewage service coverage, and their potential risk for green algae and Daphnia might be at a level of concern, although the contribution of TCS/TCC on the total toxicity of the those sites needs to be further investigated. For the three other antimicrobials, the maximum MEC/PNEC ratio for resorcinol was 0.1-1, but those for phenoxyethanol and p-thymol were <0.1 and their risk to aquatic organisms is limited, although the additive effects with TCS, TCC and other antimicrobial agents, such as parabens, need to be further examined in future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1222-1229
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Applied Toxicology
Volume33
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Antimicrobial agents
  • Ceriodaphnia dubia
  • Ecological risk
  • Ecotoxicity
  • Green algae
  • Phenoxyethanol
  • Triclocarban
  • Triclosan

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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