Double flower formation induced by silencing of C-class MADS-box genes and its variation among petunia Cultivars

Siti Hajar Noor, Koichiro Ushijima, Ayaka Murata, Kaori Yoshida, Miki Tanabe, Tomoki Tanigawa, Yasutaka Kubo, Ryohei Nakano

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Abstract

Double flowers induced by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of two C-class MADS-box genes, pMADS3 and FBP6, were investigated in four cultivars of Petunia hybrida. In flowers induced by either pMADS3-VIGS or FBP6-VIGS, only small changes in commercial appearance were recognized regardless of cultivar, whereas in those induced by pMADS3/FBP6-VIGS, complete conversion of stamens into petaloid tissues and marked enlargement of upper limb-like tissues were observed, resulting in a decorative appearance in all the four cultivars. In whorl 4, cultivar-dependent conversion of carpels into new flowers was noted in pMADS3/FBP6-VIGS flowers. Of the four cultivars, only 'Mambo Purple' exhibited the development of new flowers instead of carpels and the emergence of ectopic new flowers from the axil of whorl 3 organs, which created an ornamental appearance with a high commercial value. Investigation of large and small petaloid stamens induced by pMADS3/FBP6-VIGS and pMADS3-VIGS, respectively, revealed only small differences in cell size compared to the large difference in total surface area. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of SQUAMOSA/AP1/FRU type A-class genes, FBP29, PFG, and FBP26, showed no close relationship between the expression of those genes and petaloid stamen size. The suppressed C-class gene function at the late stage of flower development has little influence on the final size of petaloid tissue.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-7
Number of pages7
JournalScientia Horticulturae
Volume178
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 23 2014

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Keywords

  • Agamous
  • Double flower
  • Petaloid stamen
  • Petunia hybrida
  • Plena
  • Virus-induced gene silencing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Horticulture

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