In Chap. 5, we examine the relationship between bilateral trade patterns and international technology spillovers. In Chap. 6, we analyze how horizontal and vertical foreign direct investment (FDI) of multinational enterprises (MNEs) affects technology spillovers between themselves and firms in host countries. Both chapters analyze the issues from theoretical and empirical points of view. Each chapter shows that international trade or FDI is an important channel of international technology spillovers, but the effect on them is heterogeneous, depending on the type of trade patterns or the structure of FDI. In both chapters we measure technology spillovers using patent citation data.