Distribution pattern of urine albumin creatinine ratio and the prevalence of high-normal levels in untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic hypertensive patients

Natsuki Ohmaru, Takaaki Nakatsu, Reishi Izumi, Keiichi Mashima, Misako Toki, Asako Kobayashi, Hiroko Ogawa, Satoshi Hirohata, Satoru Ikeda, Shozo Kusachi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Even high-normal albuminuria is reportedly associated with cardiovascular events. Objective We determined the urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) in spot urine samples and analyzed the UACR distribution and the prevalence of high-normal levels. Patients and Methods The UACR was determined using immunoturbidimetry in 332 untreated asymptomatic non-diabetic Japanese patients with hypertension and in 69 control subjects. The microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria levels were defined as a UCAR ≥30 and <300 μg/mg·creatinine and a UCAR ≥300 μg/mg·creatinine, respectively. Results The distribution patterns showed a highly skewed distribution for the lower levels, and a common logarithmic transformation produced a close fit to a Gaussian distribution with median, 25th and 75th percentile values of 22.6, 13.5 and 48.2 μg/mg· creatinine, respectively. When a high-normal UACR was set at >20 to <30 μg/mg· creatinine, 19.9% (66/332) of the hypertensive patients exhibited a high-normal UACR. Microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria were observed in 36.1% (120/336) and 2.1% (7/332) of the patients, respectively. UACR was significantly correlated with the systolic and diastolic blood pressures and the pulse pressure. A stepwise multivariate analysis revealed that these pressures as well as age were independent factors that increased UACR. Conclusion The UACR distribution exhibited a highly skewed pattern, with approximately 60% of untreated, non-diabetic hypertensive patients exhibiting a high-normal or larger UACR. Both hypertension and age are independent risk factors that increase the UACR. The present study indicated that a considerable percentage of patients require anti-hypertensive drugs with antiproteinuric effects at the start of treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1621-1629
Number of pages9
JournalInternal Medicine
Volume50
Issue number16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Keywords

  • Albumin
  • Blood pressure
  • Kidney
  • Proteinuria
  • Risk factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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