Discontinuity of the Mozumi-Sukenobu fault low-velocity zone, central Japan, inferred from 3-D finite-difference simulation of fault zone waves excited by explosive sources

Yutaka Mamada, Yasuto Kuwahara, Hisao Ito, Hiroshi Takenaka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We delineate shallow structures of the Mozumi-Sukenobu fault, central Japan, using fault zone waves generated by near-surface explosions and detected by a seismometer array. Two explosive sources, S1 and S2, were placed at a distance of about 2 km from the array, and the other two, S3 and S4, were at a distance of about 4 km. Fault zone head waves and fault zone trapped waves following direct P wave arrivals were clearly identified in the seismograms recorded by a linear seismometer array deployed across the fault in a research tunnel at a depth of 300 m. Synthetic waveforms generated by a 3-D finite-difference (3-D FD) method were compared with observed fault zone waves up to 25 Hz. The best fitting model indicates a 200-m-wide low-velocity zone extending at least to shot site S1 located 2 km east of the seismic array with a 20% decrease in the P wave velocity relative to the wall rock. The width of the low-velocity zone is consistent with the fault zone defined by direct geological observation in the research tunnel. However, the low-velocity zone should disappear just to the east of the site S1 to explain the observed fault zone waves for shot S3 and S4 located 4 km east of the seismometer array. Yet the observation and the simulation show notable trapped wave excitation even though shots S3 and S4 are outside the fault zone. These results indicate that (1) the effective waveguide for seismic waves along the fault does not exist east of source site S1 although the surface traces of the fault are observed in this region, and (2) considerable trapped waves can be excited by sources well outside the fault zone. These results highlight the along-strike variability in fault zone structure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)209-222
Number of pages14
JournalTectonophysics
Volume378
Issue number3-4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 30 2004
Externally publishedYes

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low velocity zone
low speed
explosive
fault zone
Japan
discontinuity
seismographs
shot
simulation
trapped wave
seismograph
P waves
tunnels
P-wave
wave excitation
seismograms
seismic waves
tunnel
arrivals
explosions

Keywords

  • 3-D finite-difference simulation
  • Discontinuous fault
  • Fault zone waves
  • Head wave
  • Mozumi-Sukenobu fault
  • Trapped wave

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Geophysics

Cite this

Discontinuity of the Mozumi-Sukenobu fault low-velocity zone, central Japan, inferred from 3-D finite-difference simulation of fault zone waves excited by explosive sources. / Mamada, Yutaka; Kuwahara, Yasuto; Ito, Hisao; Takenaka, Hiroshi.

In: Tectonophysics, Vol. 378, No. 3-4, 30.01.2004, p. 209-222.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "We delineate shallow structures of the Mozumi-Sukenobu fault, central Japan, using fault zone waves generated by near-surface explosions and detected by a seismometer array. Two explosive sources, S1 and S2, were placed at a distance of about 2 km from the array, and the other two, S3 and S4, were at a distance of about 4 km. Fault zone head waves and fault zone trapped waves following direct P wave arrivals were clearly identified in the seismograms recorded by a linear seismometer array deployed across the fault in a research tunnel at a depth of 300 m. Synthetic waveforms generated by a 3-D finite-difference (3-D FD) method were compared with observed fault zone waves up to 25 Hz. The best fitting model indicates a 200-m-wide low-velocity zone extending at least to shot site S1 located 2 km east of the seismic array with a 20{\%} decrease in the P wave velocity relative to the wall rock. The width of the low-velocity zone is consistent with the fault zone defined by direct geological observation in the research tunnel. However, the low-velocity zone should disappear just to the east of the site S1 to explain the observed fault zone waves for shot S3 and S4 located 4 km east of the seismometer array. Yet the observation and the simulation show notable trapped wave excitation even though shots S3 and S4 are outside the fault zone. These results indicate that (1) the effective waveguide for seismic waves along the fault does not exist east of source site S1 although the surface traces of the fault are observed in this region, and (2) considerable trapped waves can be excited by sources well outside the fault zone. These results highlight the along-strike variability in fault zone structure.",
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N2 - We delineate shallow structures of the Mozumi-Sukenobu fault, central Japan, using fault zone waves generated by near-surface explosions and detected by a seismometer array. Two explosive sources, S1 and S2, were placed at a distance of about 2 km from the array, and the other two, S3 and S4, were at a distance of about 4 km. Fault zone head waves and fault zone trapped waves following direct P wave arrivals were clearly identified in the seismograms recorded by a linear seismometer array deployed across the fault in a research tunnel at a depth of 300 m. Synthetic waveforms generated by a 3-D finite-difference (3-D FD) method were compared with observed fault zone waves up to 25 Hz. The best fitting model indicates a 200-m-wide low-velocity zone extending at least to shot site S1 located 2 km east of the seismic array with a 20% decrease in the P wave velocity relative to the wall rock. The width of the low-velocity zone is consistent with the fault zone defined by direct geological observation in the research tunnel. However, the low-velocity zone should disappear just to the east of the site S1 to explain the observed fault zone waves for shot S3 and S4 located 4 km east of the seismometer array. Yet the observation and the simulation show notable trapped wave excitation even though shots S3 and S4 are outside the fault zone. These results indicate that (1) the effective waveguide for seismic waves along the fault does not exist east of source site S1 although the surface traces of the fault are observed in this region, and (2) considerable trapped waves can be excited by sources well outside the fault zone. These results highlight the along-strike variability in fault zone structure.

AB - We delineate shallow structures of the Mozumi-Sukenobu fault, central Japan, using fault zone waves generated by near-surface explosions and detected by a seismometer array. Two explosive sources, S1 and S2, were placed at a distance of about 2 km from the array, and the other two, S3 and S4, were at a distance of about 4 km. Fault zone head waves and fault zone trapped waves following direct P wave arrivals were clearly identified in the seismograms recorded by a linear seismometer array deployed across the fault in a research tunnel at a depth of 300 m. Synthetic waveforms generated by a 3-D finite-difference (3-D FD) method were compared with observed fault zone waves up to 25 Hz. The best fitting model indicates a 200-m-wide low-velocity zone extending at least to shot site S1 located 2 km east of the seismic array with a 20% decrease in the P wave velocity relative to the wall rock. The width of the low-velocity zone is consistent with the fault zone defined by direct geological observation in the research tunnel. However, the low-velocity zone should disappear just to the east of the site S1 to explain the observed fault zone waves for shot S3 and S4 located 4 km east of the seismometer array. Yet the observation and the simulation show notable trapped wave excitation even though shots S3 and S4 are outside the fault zone. These results indicate that (1) the effective waveguide for seismic waves along the fault does not exist east of source site S1 although the surface traces of the fault are observed in this region, and (2) considerable trapped waves can be excited by sources well outside the fault zone. These results highlight the along-strike variability in fault zone structure.

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