Possible direct effects of methamphetamine (METH) on transcription factors AP-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the nucleus were assessed by electrophoretic mobility-shift assay. In vitro addition of METH to nuclear extract from brain tissue increased DNA-binding activities of both transcription factors. In addition, injections of METH to mice induced increases in the binding of AP-1 and CREB, which were depleted by preincubating the nuclear extract with anti-METH antibody. We also examined the cellular distribution of METH in mesencephalic neuronal cells using an immunofluorescence experiment with anti-METH antibody. METH-like immunoreactivity was seen to accumulate in the cytosol 4-6 h after the METH treatment. Furthermore, METH-positive signals were also observed in the nuclei of the METH-treated cells. The present study is the first demonstration that METH can have direct effects on DNA-binding protein complex by redistributing not only in the cytosol but also into the nucleus. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.
- Confocal laser scanning microscopy
- Transcription factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience