Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme

Takashi Kurakawa, Nanae Ueda, Masahiko Maekawa, Kaoru Kobayashi, Mikiko Kojima, Yasuo Nagato, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Junko Kyozuka

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

457 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The growth of plants depends on continuous function of the meristems. Shoot meristems are responsible for all the post-embryonic aerial organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers. It has been assumed that the phytohormone cytokinin has a positive role in shoot meristem function. A severe reduction in the size of meristems in a mutant that is defective in all of its cytokinin receptors has provided compelling evidence that cytokinin is required for meristem activity. Here, we report a novel regulation of meristem activity, which is executed by the meristem-specific activation of cytokinins. The LONELY GUY (LOG) gene of rice is required to maintain meristem activity and its loss of function causes premature termination of the shoot meristem. LOG encodes a novel cytokinin-activating enzyme that works in the final step of bioactive cytokinin synthesis. Revising the long-held idea of multistep reactions, LOG directly converts inactive cytokinin nucleotides to the free-base forms, which are biologically active, by its cytokinin-specific phosphoribohydrolase activity. LOG messenger RNA is specifically localized in shoot meristem tips, indicating the activation of cytokinins in a specific developmental domain. We propose the fine-tuning of concentrations and the spatial distribution of bioactive cytokinins by a cytokinin-activating enzyme as a mechanism that regulates meristem activity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)652-655
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume445
Issue number7128
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 8 2007

Fingerprint

Cytokinins
Meristem
Enzymes
Plant Growth Regulators
Nucleotides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Kurakawa, T., Ueda, N., Maekawa, M., Kobayashi, K., Kojima, M., Nagato, Y., ... Kyozuka, J. (2007). Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme. Nature, 445(7128), 652-655. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05504

Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme. / Kurakawa, Takashi; Ueda, Nanae; Maekawa, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Kaoru; Kojima, Mikiko; Nagato, Yasuo; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kyozuka, Junko.

In: Nature, Vol. 445, No. 7128, 08.02.2007, p. 652-655.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kurakawa, T, Ueda, N, Maekawa, M, Kobayashi, K, Kojima, M, Nagato, Y, Sakakibara, H & Kyozuka, J 2007, 'Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme', Nature, vol. 445, no. 7128, pp. 652-655. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05504
Kurakawa T, Ueda N, Maekawa M, Kobayashi K, Kojima M, Nagato Y et al. Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme. Nature. 2007 Feb 8;445(7128):652-655. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature05504
Kurakawa, Takashi ; Ueda, Nanae ; Maekawa, Masahiko ; Kobayashi, Kaoru ; Kojima, Mikiko ; Nagato, Yasuo ; Sakakibara, Hitoshi ; Kyozuka, Junko. / Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme. In: Nature. 2007 ; Vol. 445, No. 7128. pp. 652-655.
@article{889bd7900e8b4235bf5b14daabee7153,
title = "Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme",
abstract = "The growth of plants depends on continuous function of the meristems. Shoot meristems are responsible for all the post-embryonic aerial organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers. It has been assumed that the phytohormone cytokinin has a positive role in shoot meristem function. A severe reduction in the size of meristems in a mutant that is defective in all of its cytokinin receptors has provided compelling evidence that cytokinin is required for meristem activity. Here, we report a novel regulation of meristem activity, which is executed by the meristem-specific activation of cytokinins. The LONELY GUY (LOG) gene of rice is required to maintain meristem activity and its loss of function causes premature termination of the shoot meristem. LOG encodes a novel cytokinin-activating enzyme that works in the final step of bioactive cytokinin synthesis. Revising the long-held idea of multistep reactions, LOG directly converts inactive cytokinin nucleotides to the free-base forms, which are biologically active, by its cytokinin-specific phosphoribohydrolase activity. LOG messenger RNA is specifically localized in shoot meristem tips, indicating the activation of cytokinins in a specific developmental domain. We propose the fine-tuning of concentrations and the spatial distribution of bioactive cytokinins by a cytokinin-activating enzyme as a mechanism that regulates meristem activity.",
author = "Takashi Kurakawa and Nanae Ueda and Masahiko Maekawa and Kaoru Kobayashi and Mikiko Kojima and Yasuo Nagato and Hitoshi Sakakibara and Junko Kyozuka",
year = "2007",
month = "2",
day = "8",
doi = "10.1038/nature05504",
language = "English",
volume = "445",
pages = "652--655",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7128",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Direct control of shoot meristem activity by a cytokinin-activating enzyme

AU - Kurakawa, Takashi

AU - Ueda, Nanae

AU - Maekawa, Masahiko

AU - Kobayashi, Kaoru

AU - Kojima, Mikiko

AU - Nagato, Yasuo

AU - Sakakibara, Hitoshi

AU - Kyozuka, Junko

PY - 2007/2/8

Y1 - 2007/2/8

N2 - The growth of plants depends on continuous function of the meristems. Shoot meristems are responsible for all the post-embryonic aerial organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers. It has been assumed that the phytohormone cytokinin has a positive role in shoot meristem function. A severe reduction in the size of meristems in a mutant that is defective in all of its cytokinin receptors has provided compelling evidence that cytokinin is required for meristem activity. Here, we report a novel regulation of meristem activity, which is executed by the meristem-specific activation of cytokinins. The LONELY GUY (LOG) gene of rice is required to maintain meristem activity and its loss of function causes premature termination of the shoot meristem. LOG encodes a novel cytokinin-activating enzyme that works in the final step of bioactive cytokinin synthesis. Revising the long-held idea of multistep reactions, LOG directly converts inactive cytokinin nucleotides to the free-base forms, which are biologically active, by its cytokinin-specific phosphoribohydrolase activity. LOG messenger RNA is specifically localized in shoot meristem tips, indicating the activation of cytokinins in a specific developmental domain. We propose the fine-tuning of concentrations and the spatial distribution of bioactive cytokinins by a cytokinin-activating enzyme as a mechanism that regulates meristem activity.

AB - The growth of plants depends on continuous function of the meristems. Shoot meristems are responsible for all the post-embryonic aerial organs, such as leaves, stems and flowers. It has been assumed that the phytohormone cytokinin has a positive role in shoot meristem function. A severe reduction in the size of meristems in a mutant that is defective in all of its cytokinin receptors has provided compelling evidence that cytokinin is required for meristem activity. Here, we report a novel regulation of meristem activity, which is executed by the meristem-specific activation of cytokinins. The LONELY GUY (LOG) gene of rice is required to maintain meristem activity and its loss of function causes premature termination of the shoot meristem. LOG encodes a novel cytokinin-activating enzyme that works in the final step of bioactive cytokinin synthesis. Revising the long-held idea of multistep reactions, LOG directly converts inactive cytokinin nucleotides to the free-base forms, which are biologically active, by its cytokinin-specific phosphoribohydrolase activity. LOG messenger RNA is specifically localized in shoot meristem tips, indicating the activation of cytokinins in a specific developmental domain. We propose the fine-tuning of concentrations and the spatial distribution of bioactive cytokinins by a cytokinin-activating enzyme as a mechanism that regulates meristem activity.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33846902325&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33846902325&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/nature05504

DO - 10.1038/nature05504

M3 - Article

VL - 445

SP - 652

EP - 655

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7128

ER -