Background Diffuse-type gastric carcinoma is a cancer with poor prognosis that has high levels of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) expression and thick stromal fibrosis. However, the association of TGF-β signaling with diffuse-type gastric carcinoma has not been investigated in detail. Methods We used a lentiviral infection system to express a dominant-negative TGF-β type II receptor (dnTβRII) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a control in the diffuse-type gastric carcinoma cell lines, OCUM-2MLN and OCUM-12. These infected cells and the corresponding parental control cells were subcutaneously or orthotopically injected into nude mice. Angiogenesis was inhibited by infecting cells with a lentivirus carrying the gene for angiogenic inhibitor thrombospondin-1 or by injecting mice intraperitoneally with the small-molecule angiogenic inhibitor sorafenib or with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) neutralizing antibody (six or eight mice per group). Expression of phospho-Smad2 and thrombospondin-1 was investigated immunologically in human gastric carcinoma tissues from 102 patients. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Expression of dnTβRII into OCUM-2MLN cells did not affect their proliferation in vitro, but it accelerated the growth of subcutaneously or orthotopically transplanted tumors in vivo (eg, for mean volume of subcutaneous tumors on day 10 relative to that on day 0: dnTβRII tumors = 3.49 and GFP tumors = 2.46, difference = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21 to 1.84; P =. 003). The tumors expressing dnTβRII had higher levels of angiogenesis than those expressing GFP because of decreased thrombospondin-1 production. Similar results were obtained with OCUM-12 cells. Expression of thrombospondin-1 in the dnTβRII tumor or treatment with sorafenib or anti-VEGF antibody reduced tumor growth, whereas knockdown of thrombospondin-1 expression resulted in more accelerated growth of OCUM-2MLN tumors than of GFP tumors (eg, mean tumor volumes on day 14 relative to those on day 0: thrombospondin-1-knockdown tumors = 4.91 and GFP tumors = 3.79, difference = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.80 to 1.44; P <. 001). Positive association between phosphorylated Smad2 and thrombospondin-1 immunostaining was observed in human gastric carcinoma tissues.ConclusionsDisruption of TGF-β signaling in diffuse-type gastric carcinoma models appeared to accelerate tumor growth, apparently through increased tumor angiogenesis that was induced by decreased expression of thrombospondin-1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research