A band gap is opened in bilayer graphene (BLG) by applying an electric field perpendicular to the layer, which offers versatility and controllability in graphene-based electronics. The presence of the band gap has been confirmed using double-gated BLG devices in which positive and negative gate voltages are applied to each side of BLG. An alternative method to induce the electric field is electron and hole doping of each side of BLG using electron-transfer adsorbates. However, the generation of the band gap by carrier doping is still under investigation. Here, we determined whether the electron/hole doping can produce the electric field required to open the band gap by measuring the temperature dependence of conductivity for BLG placed between electron-donor self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and electron-acceptor molecules. We found that some devices exhibited a band gap and others did not. The potentially irregular and variable structure of SAMs may affect the configuration of the electric field, yielding variable electronic properties. This study demonstrates the essential differences between gating and doping.
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