There have been no comparative studies investigating the results of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with gastric mesenchymal tumors, including leiomyomas, leiomyosarcomas, schwannomas, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). We retrospectively reviewed the data of 142 patients with pathologically diagnosed gastric mesenchymal tumors treated at 11 institutions. We analyzed the correlation between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) evaluated using fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) and the tumor size. The correlation between the SUVmax and mitotic index was also investigated in GISTs. The SUVmax (mean ± standard deviation) was 0.5 ± 0.6 in very low-risk GISTs (n = 42), 2.1 ± 0.7 in low-risk GISTs (n = 26), 4.9 ± 0.8 in intermediate-risk GISTs (n = 22), 12.3 ± 0.8 in high-risk GISTs (n = 20), 1.0 ± 1.0 in leiomyomas (n = 15), 6.9 ± 1.2 in schwannomas (n = 10), and 3.5 in a leiomyosarcoma (n = 1). The SUVmax of GISTs with an undetermined risk classification was 4.2 ± 1.3 (n = 8). Linear associations were observed between the SUVmax and tumor size in GISTs, leiomyomas, and schwannomas. The SUVmax of GISTs with a high mitotic index was significantly higher than that of GISTs with a low mitotic index (9.6 ± 7.6 vs. 2.4 ± 4.2). In conclusion, we observed positive correlations between the SUVmax and tumor size in GISTs, leiomyomas, and schwannomas. The SUVmax also positively correlated with the mitotic index and risk grade in GISTs. Schwannomas showed a higher FDG uptake than GISTs and leiomyomas.
- 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography
- Gastric neoplasms
- Gastrointestinal stromal tumor
- Mesenchymal tumor
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