Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin

Jun Wada, Kosuke Ota, Anil Kumar, Elisabeth I. Wallner, Yashpal S. Kanwar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

236 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin, has recently been isolated from murine embryonic kidney. In this study, its biological functions and expression in embryonic, newborn, and adult mice tissues were investigated. By Northern blot analyses, it was found widely distributed and its expression was developmentally regulated. In situ hybridization studies revealed an accentuated expression of galeerin-9 in liver and thymus of embryonic mice. In postnatal mice, antigalectiu-9 immunoreactivity was observed in various tissues, including thymic epithelial cells. The high expression of galeerin- 9 in the thymus led us to investigate its role in the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Fusion proteins were generated, which retained lactose-binding activity like the endogenous galectin-9. Galectin-9, at 2.5 μM concentration, induced apoptosis in ~ 30% of the thymocytes, as assessed by terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The apoptotic effect was dose dependent and lactose inhibitable. At higher concentrations, it induced homotypic aggregation of the thymocytes. Electron microscopy revealed ~ 60% of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis in the presence of galectin-9. By immunofluorescence microscopy, some of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis had plasmalemmal bound galectin-9. Galectin- 9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2452-2461
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Volume99
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 15 1997
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Galectins
Galactosides
Lectins
Thymocytes
Thymus Gland
Apoptosis
Lactose
Clonal Deletion
Fluorescence Microscopy
Northern Blotting
In Situ Hybridization
Hepatocytes
Electron Microscopy
Epithelial Cells
Kidney
Liver

Keywords

  • apoptosis
  • development
  • galectin
  • kidney
  • thymocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin. / Wada, Jun; Ota, Kosuke; Kumar, Anil; Wallner, Elisabeth I.; Kanwar, Yashpal S.

In: Journal of Clinical Investigation, Vol. 99, No. 10, 15.05.1997, p. 2452-2461.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wada, Jun ; Ota, Kosuke ; Kumar, Anil ; Wallner, Elisabeth I. ; Kanwar, Yashpal S. / Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin. In: Journal of Clinical Investigation. 1997 ; Vol. 99, No. 10. pp. 2452-2461.
@article{4fe29ef58ef64c40959a310f7d28e4af,
title = "Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin",
abstract = "Galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin, has recently been isolated from murine embryonic kidney. In this study, its biological functions and expression in embryonic, newborn, and adult mice tissues were investigated. By Northern blot analyses, it was found widely distributed and its expression was developmentally regulated. In situ hybridization studies revealed an accentuated expression of galeerin-9 in liver and thymus of embryonic mice. In postnatal mice, antigalectiu-9 immunoreactivity was observed in various tissues, including thymic epithelial cells. The high expression of galeerin- 9 in the thymus led us to investigate its role in the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Fusion proteins were generated, which retained lactose-binding activity like the endogenous galectin-9. Galectin-9, at 2.5 μM concentration, induced apoptosis in ~ 30{\%} of the thymocytes, as assessed by terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The apoptotic effect was dose dependent and lactose inhibitable. At higher concentrations, it induced homotypic aggregation of the thymocytes. Electron microscopy revealed ~ 60{\%} of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis in the presence of galectin-9. By immunofluorescence microscopy, some of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis had plasmalemmal bound galectin-9. Galectin- 9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus.",
keywords = "apoptosis, development, galectin, kidney, thymocytes",
author = "Jun Wada and Kosuke Ota and Anil Kumar and Wallner, {Elisabeth I.} and Kanwar, {Yashpal S.}",
year = "1997",
month = "5",
day = "15",
language = "English",
volume = "99",
pages = "2452--2461",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Investigation",
issn = "0021-9738",
publisher = "The American Society for Clinical Investigation",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin

AU - Wada, Jun

AU - Ota, Kosuke

AU - Kumar, Anil

AU - Wallner, Elisabeth I.

AU - Kanwar, Yashpal S.

PY - 1997/5/15

Y1 - 1997/5/15

N2 - Galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin, has recently been isolated from murine embryonic kidney. In this study, its biological functions and expression in embryonic, newborn, and adult mice tissues were investigated. By Northern blot analyses, it was found widely distributed and its expression was developmentally regulated. In situ hybridization studies revealed an accentuated expression of galeerin-9 in liver and thymus of embryonic mice. In postnatal mice, antigalectiu-9 immunoreactivity was observed in various tissues, including thymic epithelial cells. The high expression of galeerin- 9 in the thymus led us to investigate its role in the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Fusion proteins were generated, which retained lactose-binding activity like the endogenous galectin-9. Galectin-9, at 2.5 μM concentration, induced apoptosis in ~ 30% of the thymocytes, as assessed by terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The apoptotic effect was dose dependent and lactose inhibitable. At higher concentrations, it induced homotypic aggregation of the thymocytes. Electron microscopy revealed ~ 60% of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis in the presence of galectin-9. By immunofluorescence microscopy, some of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis had plasmalemmal bound galectin-9. Galectin- 9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus.

AB - Galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin, has recently been isolated from murine embryonic kidney. In this study, its biological functions and expression in embryonic, newborn, and adult mice tissues were investigated. By Northern blot analyses, it was found widely distributed and its expression was developmentally regulated. In situ hybridization studies revealed an accentuated expression of galeerin-9 in liver and thymus of embryonic mice. In postnatal mice, antigalectiu-9 immunoreactivity was observed in various tissues, including thymic epithelial cells. The high expression of galeerin- 9 in the thymus led us to investigate its role in the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Fusion proteins were generated, which retained lactose-binding activity like the endogenous galectin-9. Galectin-9, at 2.5 μM concentration, induced apoptosis in ~ 30% of the thymocytes, as assessed by terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The apoptotic effect was dose dependent and lactose inhibitable. At higher concentrations, it induced homotypic aggregation of the thymocytes. Electron microscopy revealed ~ 60% of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis in the presence of galectin-9. By immunofluorescence microscopy, some of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis had plasmalemmal bound galectin-9. Galectin- 9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus.

KW - apoptosis

KW - development

KW - galectin

KW - kidney

KW - thymocytes

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0030989330&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0030989330&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

C2 - 9153289

AN - SCOPUS:0030989330

VL - 99

SP - 2452

EP - 2461

JO - Journal of Clinical Investigation

JF - Journal of Clinical Investigation

SN - 0021-9738

IS - 10

ER -