Developmental regulation, expression, and apoptotic potential of galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin

Jun Wada, Kosuke Ota, Anil Kumar, Elisabeth I. Wallner, Yashpal S. Kanwar

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256 Citations (Scopus)


Galectin-9, a β-galactoside binding lectin, has recently been isolated from murine embryonic kidney. In this study, its biological functions and expression in embryonic, newborn, and adult mice tissues were investigated. By Northern blot analyses, it was found widely distributed and its expression was developmentally regulated. In situ hybridization studies revealed an accentuated expression of galeerin-9 in liver and thymus of embryonic mice. In postnatal mice, antigalectiu-9 immunoreactivity was observed in various tissues, including thymic epithelial cells. The high expression of galeerin- 9 in the thymus led us to investigate its role in the clonal deletion of thymocytes. Fusion proteins were generated, which retained lactose-binding activity like the endogenous galectin-9. Galectin-9, at 2.5 μM concentration, induced apoptosis in ~ 30% of the thymocytes, as assessed by terminal deoxytransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The apoptotic effect was dose dependent and lactose inhibitable. At higher concentrations, it induced homotypic aggregation of the thymocytes. Electron microscopy revealed ~ 60% of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis in the presence of galectin-9. By immunofluorescence microscopy, some of the thymocytes undergoing apoptosis had plasmalemmal bound galectin-9. Galectin- 9 failed to induce apoptosis in hepatocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that galectin-9, a developmentally regulated lectin, plays a role in thymocyte-epithelial interactions relevant to the biology of the thymus.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2452-2461
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Investigation
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 15 1997
Externally publishedYes


  • apoptosis
  • development
  • galectin
  • kidney
  • thymocytes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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