In order to utilize high-brilliance photon sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs), for advanced time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (TR-PES), a single-shot CCD-based data acquisition system combined with a high-resolution hemispherical electron energy analyzer has been developed. The system's design enables it to be controlled by an external trigger signal for single-shot pump-probe-type TR-PES. The basic performance of the system is demonstrated with an offline test, followed by online core-level photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy in 'single-shot image', 'shot-to-shot image (image-to-image storage or block storage)' and 'shot-to-shot sweep' modes at soft X-ray undulator beamline BL17SU of SPring-8. In the offline test the typical repetition rate for image-to-image storage mode has been confirmed to be about 15 Hz using a conventional pulse-generator. The function for correcting the shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations of the exciting photon beam, an important requirement for the TR-PES experiments at FEL sources, has been successfully tested at BL17SU by measuring Au 4f photoelectrons with intentionally controlled photon flux. The system has also been applied to hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) in 'ordinary sweep' mode as well as shot-to-shot image mode at the 27 m-long undulator beamline BL19LXU of SPring-8 and also at the SACLA XFEL facility. The XFEL-induced Ti 1s core-level spectrum of La-doped SrTiO3 is reported as a function of incident power density. The Ti 1s core-level spectrum obtained at low power density is consistent with the spectrum obtained using the synchrotron source. At high power densities the Ti 1s core-level spectra show space-charge effects which are analysed using a known mean-field model for ultrafast electron packet propagation. The results successfully confirm the capability of the present data acquisition system for carrying out the core-level HAXPES studies of condensed matter induced by the XFEL.
- X-ray free-electron laser
- data acquisition system
- hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
- shot-to-shot measurement
- soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics