Development of a new hybrid gel phantom using carrageenan and gellan gum for visualizing three-dimensional temperature distribution during hyperthermia and radiofrequency ablation

Masahiro Kuroda, Hirokazu Kato, Katsumi Hanamoto, Kaoru Shimamura, Tetsuya Uchida, Yadi Wang, Shiro Akaki, Jun Ichi Asaumi, Kengo Himei, Mitsuhiro Takemoto, Susumu Kanazawa, Koichi Shibuya, Shoji Kawasaki, Yoshio Hiraki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We developed a new hybrid gel phantom using carrageenan and gellan gum for the purpose of visualizing three-dimensional temperature distribution. The phantom, which contains carrageenan, gellan gum, non-ionic surface active agent, potassium chloride, n-butanol, sodium azide, and water, shows good transparency at room temperature, and has the advantage that the heated region becomes white and opaque due to segregation of the surface active agent. Carrageenan and gellan gum were added to improve the transparency and fragility of the hybrid gel. Potassium chloride was used to adjust the electrical conductivity of the gel to a range of 5-130 MHz, so that it would be equivalent to that of muscle tissue for each frequency used by electromagnetic heating devices. N-butanol was used to adjust the clouding temperature to a range between 45 and 55°C. In the present study we clarified the important properties of the new phantom, and developed formulae for easy determination of the amounts of ingredients necessary for the desired clouding temperature and electric conductivity. The characteristics of this phantom are: a) a solid form to avoid convection by heat conduction; b) sufficient strength without fragility to form a torso without the use of a reinforcing agent; c) high transparency at room temperature and visualization of the heating area as a white turbidity; d) time-lapse and accurate visualization of the changing temperature area without thermal hysteresis; e) electrical properties similar to those of human tissues; f) ease of production; and g) low cost and good safety. This phantom might assist oncologists in their routine checking and study of the performance of electromagnetic heating devices for hyperthermia and radiofrequency ablation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-184
Number of pages10
JournalInternational journal of oncology
Volume27
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2005

Keywords

  • Carrageenan
  • Gel phantom
  • Gellan gum
  • Hyperthermia
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Temperature distribution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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