Development of a handmade conductivity measurement apparatus and application to vegetables and fruits

Seng Set, Masakazu Kita

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4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes the development of a simple handmade conductivity measurement apparatus based on a Kohlrausch bridge with inexpensive materials. We have examined the reliability of this apparatus with standard solutions and then measured juices of vegetables and fruits as well as a sports drink. Comparisons to total alkali content as determined by titration were made. The handmade apparatus was introduced to high school chemistry classes through a lesson on the conductivity of electrolyte solutions. The results showed that the developed apparatus could be used effectively for teaching high school chemistry.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)892-897
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Chemical Education
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 10 2014



  • Conductivity
  • First-Year Undergraduate/General
  • Food Science
  • Hands-On Learning/Manipulatives
  • High School/Introductory Chemistry
  • Laboratory Equipment/Apparatus
  • Laboratory Instruction
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Titration/Volumetric Analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Education

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