Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis

Trenton Lippert, Nate Watson, Xunming Ji, Takao Yasuhara, Isao Date, Yuji Kaneko, Naoki Tajiri, Cesar V. Borlongan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Patients diagnosed with neurological disorders exhibit a variety of physical and psychiatric symptoms, including muscle atrophy, general immobility, and depression. Patients who participate in physical rehabilitation at times show unexpected clinical improvement, which includes diminished depression and other stress-related behaviors. Regenerative medicine has advanced two major stem cell-based therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disorders, transplantation of exogenous stem cells, and enhancing the endogenous neurogenesis. The latter therapy utilizes a natural method of re-innervating the injured brain, which may mend neurological impairments. In this study, we examine how inactivity-induced atrophy, using the hindlimb suspension model, alters neurogenesis in rats. The hypothesis is that inactivity inhibits neurogenesis by decreasing circulation growth or trophic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth or neurotrophic factors. The restriction modifies neurogenesis and stem cell differentiation in the CNS, the stem cell microenvironment is examined by the trophic and growth factors, including stress-related proteins. Despite growing evidence revealing the benefits of "increased" exercise on neurogenesis, the opposing theory involving "physical inactivity," which simulates pathological states, continues to be neglected. This novel theory will allow us to explore the effects on neurogenesis by an intransigent stem cell microenvironment likely generated by inactivity. 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine labeling of proliferative cells, biochemical assays of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and brain levels of trophic factors, growth factors, and stress-related proteins are suggested identifiers of neurogenesis, while evaluation of spontaneous movements will give insight into the psychomotor effects of inactivity. Investigations devised to show how in vivo stimulation, or lack thereof, affects the stem cell microenvironment are necessary to establish treatment methods to boost neurogenesis in bedridden patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)80-85
Number of pages6
JournalBrain circulation
Volume2
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016

Keywords

  • Immobilization
  • neurogenesis
  • neurological disorders
  • physical exercise
  • stem cells

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    Lippert, T., Watson, N., Ji, X., Yasuhara, T., Date, I., Kaneko, Y., Tajiri, N., & Borlongan, C. V. (2016). Detrimental effects of physical inactivity on neurogenesis. Brain circulation, 2(2), 80-85. https://doi.org/10.4103/2394-8108.186278