Mutations in the OTOF gene are a common cause of hereditary hearing loss and the main cause of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD). Although it is reported that most of the patients with OTOF mutations have stable, congenital or prelingual onset severe-to-profound hearing loss, some patients show atypical clinical phenotypes, and the genotype–phenotype correlation in patients with OTOF mutations is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to reveal detailed clinical characteristics of OTOF-related hearing loss patients and the genotype–phenotype correlation. Detailed clinical information was available for 64 patients in our database who were diagnosed with OTOF-related hearing loss. As reported previously, most of the patients (90.6%) showed a “typical” phenotype; prelingual and severe-to-profound hearing loss. Forty-seven patients (73.4%) underwent cochlear implantation surgery and showed successful outcomes; approximately 85–90% of the patients showed a hearing level of 20–39 dB with cochlear implant and a Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) scale level 6 or better. Although truncating mutations and p.Arg1939Gln were clearly related to severe phenotype, almost half of the patients with one or more non-truncating mutations showed mild-to-moderate hearing loss. Notably, patients with p.His513Arg, p.Ile1573Thr and p.Glu1910Lys showed “true” auditory neuropathy-like clinical characteristics. In this study, we have clarified genotype–phenotype correlation and efficacy of cochlear implantation for OTOF-related hearing loss patients in the biggest cohort studied to date. We believe that the clinical characteristics and genotype–phenotype correlation found in this study will support preoperative counseling and appropriate intervention for OTOF-related hearing loss patients.
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