Design of carrier tRNAs and selection of four-base codons for efficient incorporation of various nonnatural amino acids into proteins in Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) insect cell-free translation system

Masumi Taki, Yasunori Tokuda, Takashi Ohtsuki, Masahiko Sisido

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) insect cell-free protein synthesizing system was expanded to include nonnatural amino acids. Orthogonal tRNAs that work as carriers of nonnatural amino acids in the insect system were explored. Four-base codons for assigning the positions of nonnatural amino acids were also selected. Mutated streptavidin mRNAs that contained different four-base codons were prepared and added to the insect cell-free system in the presence of various tRNAs possessing the corresponding four-base anticodons. The tRNAs were chemically aminoacylated with various types of nonnatural amino acids to examine their incorporation efficiencies. Using p-nitrophenylalanine as the nonnatural amino acid and streptavidin as the target protein, tRNA sequences and the types of four-base codons were optimized to maximize the yield of the nonnatural mutant and to minimize production of full-length proteins that do not contain the nonnatural amino acid. Among the tRNA sequences taken from a variety of tRNAs of nonstandard structures, the tRNA derived from Methanosarcina acetivorans tRNAPyl was the most efficient and orthogonal tRNA. Of the CGGN-type four-base codons, CGGA and CGGG were the most efficient ones for assigning the positions of nonnatural amino acids. p-Nitrophenylalanine and 2-naphthylalanine were efficiently incorporated as in the case of Escherichia coli and rabbit reticulocyte cell-free systems. Much less efficient incorporation was observed, however, for other nonnatural amino acids, indicating that the insect system is less tolerant to the structural diversity of amino acids than the E. coli cell-free system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)511-517
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Volume102
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006

Fingerprint

Sf9 Cells
Cell-Free System
Transfer RNA
Codon
Insects
Amino acids
Proteins
Amino Acids
Streptavidin
Escherichia coli
Methanosarcina
Anticodon
Reticulocytes
Rabbits
Messenger RNA

Keywords

  • cell-free translation
  • four-base codon
  • nonnatural amino acid
  • orthogonal tRNA
  • Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) cell lysate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Bioengineering

Cite this

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title = "Design of carrier tRNAs and selection of four-base codons for efficient incorporation of various nonnatural amino acids into proteins in Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) insect cell-free translation system",
abstract = "Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) insect cell-free protein synthesizing system was expanded to include nonnatural amino acids. Orthogonal tRNAs that work as carriers of nonnatural amino acids in the insect system were explored. Four-base codons for assigning the positions of nonnatural amino acids were also selected. Mutated streptavidin mRNAs that contained different four-base codons were prepared and added to the insect cell-free system in the presence of various tRNAs possessing the corresponding four-base anticodons. The tRNAs were chemically aminoacylated with various types of nonnatural amino acids to examine their incorporation efficiencies. Using p-nitrophenylalanine as the nonnatural amino acid and streptavidin as the target protein, tRNA sequences and the types of four-base codons were optimized to maximize the yield of the nonnatural mutant and to minimize production of full-length proteins that do not contain the nonnatural amino acid. Among the tRNA sequences taken from a variety of tRNAs of nonstandard structures, the tRNA derived from Methanosarcina acetivorans tRNAPyl was the most efficient and orthogonal tRNA. Of the CGGN-type four-base codons, CGGA and CGGG were the most efficient ones for assigning the positions of nonnatural amino acids. p-Nitrophenylalanine and 2-naphthylalanine were efficiently incorporated as in the case of Escherichia coli and rabbit reticulocyte cell-free systems. Much less efficient incorporation was observed, however, for other nonnatural amino acids, indicating that the insect system is less tolerant to the structural diversity of amino acids than the E. coli cell-free system.",
keywords = "cell-free translation, four-base codon, nonnatural amino acid, orthogonal tRNA, Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) cell lysate",
author = "Masumi Taki and Yasunori Tokuda and Takashi Ohtsuki and Masahiko Sisido",
year = "2006",
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T1 - Design of carrier tRNAs and selection of four-base codons for efficient incorporation of various nonnatural amino acids into proteins in Spodoptera frugiperda 21 (Sf21) insect cell-free translation system

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AU - Ohtsuki, Takashi

AU - Sisido, Masahiko

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