Recent studies have shown that administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is neuroprotective. However, the precise mechanisms of the neuroprotective effect of G-CSF are not entirely known. We carried out 90-min transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) of rats. The rats were injected with vehicle or G-CSF (50 μg/kg) immediately after reperfusion and sacrificed 8, 24, or 72 hr later. 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was carried out using brain sections of 72 hr, and immunohistochemistry was carried out with those of 8, 24, and 72 hr. TTC-staining showed a significant reduction of infarct volume in the G-CSF-treated group (**P < 0.01). Immunohistochemistry showed a significant decrease of the number of cells expressing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 8-72 hr, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) at 24 and 72 hr after tMCAO in the peri-ischemic area (*P < 0.05 each). Our data suggest that the suppression of inflammatory cytokines and iNOS expression may be one mechanism of neuroprotection by G-CSF.
- Colony-stimulating factor
- Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience