Cyclic anoxia and organic rich carbonate sediments within a drowned carbonate platform linked to Antarctic ice volume changes: Late Oligocene-early Miocene Maldives

Peter K. Swart, Clara L. Blättler, Masatoshi Nakakuni, Greta J. Mackenzie, Christian Betzler, Gregor P. Eberli, Jesus Reolid, Montserrat Alonso-García, Angela L. Slagle, James D. Wright, Dick Kroon, John J.G. Reijmer, Anna L. Hui Mee, Jeremy R. Young, Carlos A. Alvarez-Zarikian, Orr M. Bialik, Junhua Adam Guo, Sebastian Haffen, Senay Horozal, Mayuri InoueLuigi Jovane, Luca Lanci, Juan Carlos Laya, Thomas Lüdmann, B. Nagender Nath, Kaoru Niino, Loren M. Petruny, Santi Dwi Pratiwi, Xiang Su, Craig R. Sloss, Zhengquan Yao

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

This paper reports on the newly discovered occurrence of thick sequences (∼100 m) of Late Oligocene and Early Miocene (∼24.9 to ∼20 Ma) interbedded organic-rich sediments (sapropels) and pelagic (organic poor) carbonates at Sites U1466 and U1468 drilled in the Maldives archipelago during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 359. This occurrence is unusual in that this sequence is located > 1000 m above the surrounding ocean floor within an inter-atoll basin and not linked to any known global oceanic events. Total organic content reaches as high as 35% in the darker layers, while the interbedded carbonates have concentrations of less than 0.1%. Trace elements characteristic of anoxic waters, such as Mo, V, Cr, U, and Pb, correlate positively with concentrations of organic carbon. Nitrogen isotopic data show no evidence that the intervals of high total organic carbon are related to enhanced productivity driven by upwelling. Instead, high organic carbon is associated with intervals of anoxia. We propose that sea-level fluctuations linked to changes in Antarctic ice volume restricted exchange with the open ocean causing bottom waters of the inter-atoll basin to become anoxic periodically. The architecture of the platform at the end of the Oligocene, combined with the global sea-level highstand, set the stage for orbitally-driven sea-level changes producing cyclic deposition of sapropels. The proposed mechanism may serve as an analogue for other occurrences of organic carbon-rich sediments within carbonate platform settings.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume521
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2019

Fingerprint

anoxia
carbonate sediment
Carbonates
Ice
volume change
Organic carbon
carbonate platform
Oligocene
sapropel
carbonates
Sea level
Sediments
sediments
ice
platforms
atoll
sea level
organic carbon
Miocene
carbon

Keywords

  • anoxia
  • carbonate platforms
  • sapropels
  • sea level

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Cyclic anoxia and organic rich carbonate sediments within a drowned carbonate platform linked to Antarctic ice volume changes : Late Oligocene-early Miocene Maldives. / Swart, Peter K.; Blättler, Clara L.; Nakakuni, Masatoshi; Mackenzie, Greta J.; Betzler, Christian; Eberli, Gregor P.; Reolid, Jesus; Alonso-García, Montserrat; Slagle, Angela L.; Wright, James D.; Kroon, Dick; Reijmer, John J.G.; Hui Mee, Anna L.; Young, Jeremy R.; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.; Bialik, Orr M.; Guo, Junhua Adam; Haffen, Sebastian; Horozal, Senay; Inoue, Mayuri; Jovane, Luigi; Lanci, Luca; Laya, Juan Carlos; Lüdmann, Thomas; Nagender Nath, B.; Niino, Kaoru; Petruny, Loren M.; Pratiwi, Santi Dwi; Su, Xiang; Sloss, Craig R.; Yao, Zhengquan.

In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 521, 01.09.2019, p. 1-13.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Swart, PK, Blättler, CL, Nakakuni, M, Mackenzie, GJ, Betzler, C, Eberli, GP, Reolid, J, Alonso-García, M, Slagle, AL, Wright, JD, Kroon, D, Reijmer, JJG, Hui Mee, AL, Young, JR, Alvarez-Zarikian, CA, Bialik, OM, Guo, JA, Haffen, S, Horozal, S, Inoue, M, Jovane, L, Lanci, L, Laya, JC, Lüdmann, T, Nagender Nath, B, Niino, K, Petruny, LM, Pratiwi, SD, Su, X, Sloss, CR & Yao, Z 2019, 'Cyclic anoxia and organic rich carbonate sediments within a drowned carbonate platform linked to Antarctic ice volume changes: Late Oligocene-early Miocene Maldives', Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 521, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2019.05.019
Swart, Peter K. ; Blättler, Clara L. ; Nakakuni, Masatoshi ; Mackenzie, Greta J. ; Betzler, Christian ; Eberli, Gregor P. ; Reolid, Jesus ; Alonso-García, Montserrat ; Slagle, Angela L. ; Wright, James D. ; Kroon, Dick ; Reijmer, John J.G. ; Hui Mee, Anna L. ; Young, Jeremy R. ; Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A. ; Bialik, Orr M. ; Guo, Junhua Adam ; Haffen, Sebastian ; Horozal, Senay ; Inoue, Mayuri ; Jovane, Luigi ; Lanci, Luca ; Laya, Juan Carlos ; Lüdmann, Thomas ; Nagender Nath, B. ; Niino, Kaoru ; Petruny, Loren M. ; Pratiwi, Santi Dwi ; Su, Xiang ; Sloss, Craig R. ; Yao, Zhengquan. / Cyclic anoxia and organic rich carbonate sediments within a drowned carbonate platform linked to Antarctic ice volume changes : Late Oligocene-early Miocene Maldives. In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2019 ; Vol. 521. pp. 1-13.
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T2 - Late Oligocene-early Miocene Maldives

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AU - Nakakuni, Masatoshi

AU - Mackenzie, Greta J.

AU - Betzler, Christian

AU - Eberli, Gregor P.

AU - Reolid, Jesus

AU - Alonso-García, Montserrat

AU - Slagle, Angela L.

AU - Wright, James D.

AU - Kroon, Dick

AU - Reijmer, John J.G.

AU - Hui Mee, Anna L.

AU - Young, Jeremy R.

AU - Alvarez-Zarikian, Carlos A.

AU - Bialik, Orr M.

AU - Guo, Junhua Adam

AU - Haffen, Sebastian

AU - Horozal, Senay

AU - Inoue, Mayuri

AU - Jovane, Luigi

AU - Lanci, Luca

AU - Laya, Juan Carlos

AU - Lüdmann, Thomas

AU - Nagender Nath, B.

AU - Niino, Kaoru

AU - Petruny, Loren M.

AU - Pratiwi, Santi Dwi

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AU - Sloss, Craig R.

AU - Yao, Zhengquan

PY - 2019/9/1

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N2 - This paper reports on the newly discovered occurrence of thick sequences (∼100 m) of Late Oligocene and Early Miocene (∼24.9 to ∼20 Ma) interbedded organic-rich sediments (sapropels) and pelagic (organic poor) carbonates at Sites U1466 and U1468 drilled in the Maldives archipelago during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 359. This occurrence is unusual in that this sequence is located > 1000 m above the surrounding ocean floor within an inter-atoll basin and not linked to any known global oceanic events. Total organic content reaches as high as 35% in the darker layers, while the interbedded carbonates have concentrations of less than 0.1%. Trace elements characteristic of anoxic waters, such as Mo, V, Cr, U, and Pb, correlate positively with concentrations of organic carbon. Nitrogen isotopic data show no evidence that the intervals of high total organic carbon are related to enhanced productivity driven by upwelling. Instead, high organic carbon is associated with intervals of anoxia. We propose that sea-level fluctuations linked to changes in Antarctic ice volume restricted exchange with the open ocean causing bottom waters of the inter-atoll basin to become anoxic periodically. The architecture of the platform at the end of the Oligocene, combined with the global sea-level highstand, set the stage for orbitally-driven sea-level changes producing cyclic deposition of sapropels. The proposed mechanism may serve as an analogue for other occurrences of organic carbon-rich sediments within carbonate platform settings.

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