Giant-cell tumor of bone is a rare, locally aggressive and rarely metastasizing primary bone tumor. The mainstay of treatment remains controversial and is decided by the balance between adequate surgical margin and sufficient adjacent joint function. Although curettage with a high-speed burr and local adjuvants can maintain normal joint function, many reports have revealed a high local recurrence rate. Conversely, en bloc resection and reconstruction with prostheses for highly aggressive lesions have reportedly lower local recurrence rates and poorer functional outcomes. Denosumab - a full human monoclonal antibody that inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa β ligand - was approved by the Food and Drug Authority in 2013 for use in surgically unresectable or when resection is likely to result in severe morbidity for skeletally mature adolescents and adults with giant-cell tumor of bone. However, subsequent studies have suggested that the local recurrence rate would be increased by preoperative use of denosumab. In systematic reviews of the local recurrence rate after preoperative use of denosumab, conclusions vary due to the small sample sizes of the studies reviewed. Therefore, controversy regarding the treatment of giant-cell tumor of bone is ongoing. Here, this review elucidates the management of giant-cell tumor of bone, especially with the local adjuvant and neoadjuvant use of denosumab, and presents the current, evidence-based treatment for giant-cell tumor of bone.
- bone tumors
- giant-cell tumor of bone
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research