This cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between periodontal condition and ultrasound-diagnosed non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a Japanese oral health check population. A total of 1226 consecutive participant were enrolled in the study. Abdominal ultrasonography was applied to diagnose NAFLD. Of the study participants, 339 (27.7%) had ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD. The participants with NAFLD had a significantly higher prevalence of probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 4 mm (86.7%) than those without NAFLD (72.9%) (p < 0.05). After adjusting for gender, age, Brinkman index, regular exercise habits, body mass index, number of teeth present, presence of periodontitis, blood pressure, and serum parameters, there was a statistically significant difference in the adjusted odds ratios of having PPD ≥ 4 mm for NAFLD (Odds ratio = 1.881, 95% confidence interval 1.184-2.987, p < 0.01). Having PPD ≥ 4 mm may be a risk factor for ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD in this cross-sectional study of a Japanese oral health check population.
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