Construction and demolition waste generation rates for high-rise buildings in Malaysia

Chooi Mei Mah, Takeshi Fujiwara, Chin Siong Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

40 Citations (Scopus)


Construction and demolition waste continues to sharply increase in step with the economic growth of less developed countries. Though the construction industry is large, it is composed of small firms with individual waste management practices, often leading to the deleterious environmental outcomes. Quantifying construction and demolition waste generation allows policy makers and stakeholders to understand the true internal and external costs of construction, providing a necessary foundation for waste management planning that may overcome deleterious environmental outcomes and may be both economically and environmentally optimal. This study offers a theoretical method for estimating the construction and demolition project waste generation rate by utilising available data, including waste disposal truck size and number, and waste volume and composition. This method is proposed as a less burdensome and more broadly applicable alternative, in contrast to waste estimation by on-site hand sorting and weighing. The developed method is applied to 11 projects across Malaysia as the case study. This study quantifies waste generation rate and illustrates the construction method in influencing the waste generation rate, estimating that the conventional construction method has a waste generation rate of 9.88 t 100 m-2, the mixed-construction method has a waste generation rate of 3.29 t 100 m-2, and demolition projects have a waste generation rate of 104.28 t 100 m-2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1224-1230
Number of pages7
JournalWaste Management and Research
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Construction and demolition waste
  • estimation tool
  • high-rise development
  • waste composition
  • waste generation rate
  • waste quantification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Pollution


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