Among the photoproducts of vertebrate rhodopsin, only metarhodopsin II (Meta-II) preferentially adopts the active structure in which transmembrane helices are rearranged. Light-induced helical rearrangement of rhodopsin in membrane-embedded form was directly monitored by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) using nanodiscs. The change in the WAXS curve for the formation of Meta-II was characterized by a peak at 0.2 Å-1 and a valley at 0.6 Å-1, which were not observed in metarhodopsin I and opsin. However, acid-induced active opsin (Opsin*) showed a 0.2 Å-1 peak, but no 0.6 Å-1 valley. Analyses using the model structures based on the crystal structures of dark state and Meta-II suggest that the outward movement of helix VI occurred in Opsin*. However, the displaced helices III and V in Meta-II resulting from the disruption of cytoplasmic ionic lock were restored in Opsin*, which is likely to destabilize the G-protein-activating structure of opsin.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Materials Chemistry