Confocal analysis of chromosome behavior in wheat x maize zygotes

Keiichi Mochida, Hisashi Tsujimoto, Tetsuo Sasakuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

60 Citations (Scopus)


Herein, we profile the first embryonic mitosis in a hybrid of wheat and maize by using a whole-mount genomic in situ hybridization method and immunofluorescence staining with a tubulin-specific antibody. We have successfully captured the dynamics of each set of parental chromosomes in the first zygotic division of the hybrid embryo 24-28 h after crossing. During the first zygotic metaphase, although both sets of parental chromosomes congressed into the equatorial plate of the zygote, the maize chromosomes tended to lag in comparison with the wheat chromosomes. During anaphase, each parental chromosome separated into its sister chromosomes; however, some of the maize chromosomes lagged around the metaphase plate as segregants. The maize sister chromosomes that did move toward the pole showed delayed and asymmetric movement as compared with the wheat ones. Immunological staining of tubulin revealed a bipolar spindle structure in the first zygotic metaphase. The kinetochores of the maize chromosomes that lagged around the metaphase plate did not attach to the spindle microtubules. These results suggest that factors on the kinetochores of maize chromosomes that are required to control chromosome movement are deficient in the zygotic cell cycle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-205
Number of pages7
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Chromosome elimination
  • GISH
  • Hybrid embryogenesis
  • Whole-mount

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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