The optimal intensity of conditioning regimen may be dependent on not only age and comorbidities but also disease characteristics and risk of relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We, therefore, analyzed the transplant outcomes of 840 adult patients with cytogenetically poor-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1) who received first allogeneic HCT with either myeloablative conditioning (MAC; n = 652) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC; n = 188) between 2006 and 2017. The median age at HCT was 50.5 years (range: 16 to 77 years). The multivariate analysis showed that patients receiving MAC had a significantly higher overall survival and lower leukemia-related mortality than those receiving RIC (P = .011 and P = .025, respectively). In the subgroup analysis, these results applied to patients aged 16 to 59 years, with HCT-comorbidity index scores ≥3, and with cytogenetic remission. Among MAC regimens, there was a trend for worse survival and nonrelapse mortality with the busulfan/fludarabine-based regimen compared with the total body irradiation (TBI) ≥8 Gy-based regimen (P = .082 and P = .062, respectively), whereas the busulfan/cyclophosphamide-based regimen and the fludarabine/melphalan-based regimen had similar outcomes with the TBI-based regimen. These data suggest that MAC is preferable to RIC for patients with cytogenetically poor-risk AML undergoing allogeneic HCT in CR1.
- Acute myeloid leukemia
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- First complete remission
- Myeloablative conditioning
- Poor-risk cytogenetics
- Reduced-intensity conditioning
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