The present study aimed to develop a scale to measure beliefs about failure, that is, individual differences in positive and negative value beliefs about experiences of failure, and to examine the reliability and validity of the scale. In Study 1, items were developed on the basis of an extensive literature review and responses to open-ended questions. The scale was then completed by 246 undergraduates; their responses were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. The results revealed that the scale had the following 4 factors: negative affective valence of failure, learning orientation, need to avoid failure, and perceived probability of occurrence of failure. In Study 2, 759 undergraduates completed the scale; analysis of their responses confirmed the scales validity and reliability, including adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. In Study 3, 187 undergraduates completed a questionnaire on hypothetical failure situations. The results suggested that the participants beliefs about failure determined their causal attributions for negative events and their subsequent coping behavior.
- Beliefs about failure
- Experience of failure
- Scale development
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Developmental and Educational Psychology