This study was conducted to evaluate the positive effects of compost application in agriculture and the benefit of the composting process for solid-waste treatment in the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam (comprised of 12 provinces and 1 centrally city). A simple prediction model for waste generation based on population – and employing time-series analysis– was constructed to assess and forecast waste generation to identify the potential of waste for composting and discharging. The greenhouse gas baseline emission from biodegradable components and the greenhouse gas reduction emission for alternative composting options were also calculated in g(CO2eq.) per capita per day. Scenarios regarding different composting applications for the Mekong Delta region were defined. The estimations focused on such matters as environmental impacts, greenhouse-gas emission and reduction, resource consumption, economic benefits, and the application potential of the composting process. The principal result was that organic-waste composting was beneficial not only for mitigating the waste burden in landfill sites but also for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions compared to baseline emission and the attendant costs. In addition, the compost product was identified as having strong potential to displace chemical fertilizers in agriculture. It was shown that the composting process was a sound alternative for moving toward sustainable development in waste treatment and agriculture.