Composition of MRI phantom equivalent to human tissues

Hirokazu Kato, Masahiro Kuroda, Koichi Yoshimura, Atsushi Yoshida, Katsumi Hanamoto, Shoji Kawasaki, Koichi Shibuya, Susumu Kanazawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Citations (Scopus)


We previously developed two new MRI phantoms (called the CAG phantom and the CAGN phantom), with T1 and T2 relaxation times equivalent to those of any human tissue at 1.5 T. The conductivity of the CAGN phantom is equivalent to that of most types of human tissue in the frequency range of 1 to 130 MHz. In this paper, the relaxation times of human tissues are summarized, and the composition of the corresponding phantoms are provided in table form. The ingredients of these phantoms are carrageenan as the gelling agent, GdCl 3 as a T1 modifier, agarose as a T2 modifier, NaCl (CAGN phantom only) as a conductivity modifier, NaN3 as an antiseptic, and distilled water. The phantoms have T1 values of 202-1904 ms and T2 values of 38-423 ms when the concentrations of GdCl3 and agarose are varied from 0-140 μmol/kg, and 0%-1.6%, respectively, and the CAGN phantom has a conductivity of 0.27-1.26 S/m when the NaCl concentration is varied from 0%-0.7%. These phantoms have sufficient strength to replicate a torso without the use of reinforcing agents, and can be cut by a knife into any shape. We anticipate the CAGN phantom to be highly useful and practical for MRI and hyperthermia-related research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3199-3208
Number of pages10
JournalMedical Physics
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2005


  • Dielectric property
  • Hyperthermia
  • MRI
  • Phantom
  • Relaxation times

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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