Pulmonary complications in patients with hematological malignancies are often caused by infection but are sometimes associated with an underlying disease such as organizing pneumonia (OP). Here, we report a case of life-threatening steroid-resistant OP associated with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and successfully performed allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT). A 33-year-old female with refractory anemia with excess blasts- 1 that had progressed from refractory anemia with ringed sideroblasts and concomitant Sweet's syndrome was admitted. Multiple pulmonary infiltrates were revealed on a chest computed tomography scan, which progressively worsened even after chemotherapy and corticosteroid therapy. No evidence of infection was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. A histological examination of a transbronchial lung biopsy specimen showed lymphocyte invasion with fibrosis, indicating that the pulmonary infiltrates were OP associated with MDS. Before transplantation, she suffered from respiratory failure and required oxygen supplementation. She developed idiopathic pneumonitis syndrome on day 61 that responded well to corticosteroid therapy, and the OP pulmonary infiltrates improved gradually after HSCT, She was discharged on day 104 and is well without recurrence of OP or MDS 2 years after HSCT.
- Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- Myelodysplastic syndrome
- Organizing pneumonia
- Sweet's syndrome
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