Comparison of Value Set Based on DCE and/or TTO Data: Scoring for EQ-5D-5L Health States in Japan

Takeru Shiroiwa, Shunya Ikeda, Shinichi Noto, Ataru Igarashi, Takashi Fukuda, Shinya Saito, Kojiro Shimozuma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

79 Citations (Scopus)


Background The valuation study of the five-level version of the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D-5L) involved composite time trade-off (cTTO) and a discrete choice experiment (DCE). The DCE scores must be anchored to the quality-of-life scale from 0 (death) to 1 (full health). Nevertheless, the characteristics of the statistical methods used for converting the EQ-5D-5L DCE results by using TTO information are not yet clearly known. Objectives To present the Japanese DCE value set of the EQ-5D-5L and compare three methods for converting latent DCE values. Methods The survey sampled the general population at five locations in Japan. 1098 respondents were stratified by age and sex. To obtain and compare the value sets of the EQ-5D-5L, the cTTO and DCE data were analyzed by a linear mixed model and conditional logit, respectively. The DCE scores were converted to the quality-of-life scale by anchoring to the worst state using cTTO, mapping DCE onto cTTO, and a hybrid model. Results The data from 1026 respondents were analyzed. All the coefficients in the cTTO and DCE value sets were consistent throughout all the analyses. Compared with the cTTO algorithm, the mapping and hybrid methods yielded very similar scoring coefficients. The hybrid model results, however, produced a lower root mean square error and fewer health states with errors exceeding 0.05 than did the other models. The DCE anchored to the worst state overestimated the cTTO scores of almost all the health states. Conclusions Japanese value sets based on DCE were demonstrated. On comparing the observed cTTO scores, we found that the hybrid model was slightly superior to the simpler methods, including the TTO model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)648-654
Number of pages7
JournalValue in Health
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2016


  • EQ-5D-5L
  • discrete choice experiment (DCE)
  • preference
  • time trade-off (TTO)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Policy
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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