To investigate which reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC)/reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) is superior for umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) for lymphoid malignancies, we retrospectively compared three widely used RIC/RTC regimens: fludarabine/melphalan/total body irradiation (FM-TBI, n = 524), fludarabine/cyclophosphamide/total body irradiation (FC-TBI, n = 96), and fludarabine/busulfan/total body irradiation or melphalan (FB-based, n = 159). Among patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (n = 314), there were no differences in overall survival (OS) by conditioning regimen. Among patients with malignant lymphoma (ML) (n = 465), FM-TBI and FC-TBI regimens had similar OS, whereas FB-based regimen had lower OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; P < 0.01) than did FM-TBI regimen due to higher non-relapse mortality (HR, 1.72; P = 0.02). In addition, mycophenolate mofetil-containing GVHD prophylaxis was associated with better OS than methotrexate-containing GVHD prophylaxis among patients who received FM-TBI (HR, 0.65; P = 0.03) and FC-TBI (HR, 0.25; P < 0.01) regimens due to a decreased relapse risk. In summary, our results suggest that all three RIC/RTC regimens have comparable clinical outcomes in ALL, while the FM-TBI or FC-TBI regimens combined with mycophenolate mofetil-containing GVHD prophylaxis is preferable in RIC/RTC-UCBT for ML. Large prospective studies are warranted to confirm these results.
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