Comparison of direct oral anticoagulant and Vitamin K antagonists on outcomes among elderly and nonelderly trauma patients

Takeshi Nishimura, Francis X. Guyette, Hiromichi Naito, Atsunori Nakao, Joshua B. Brown, Clifton W. Callaway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are widely used among patients requiring anticoagulant therapy. These drugs are associated with a lower risk of bleeding than vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). However, the outcomes of elderly trauma patients receiving DOACs are not well known. METHODS: We reviewed data from trauma patients at our level I trauma center (University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian Hospital) seen from January 2011 to July 2018. We identified trauma patients taking DOACs or VKAs and compared these cohorts using 1:1 propensity score-matching based on patient characteristics, antiplatelet use, comorbidities, and laboratory values. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients discharged to skilled nursing facility/ rehabilitation facility discharge or to home, and transfusion volume. RESULTS: Of 32,272 trauma patients screened, 530 were taking DOACs and 1,702 were taking VKAs. We matched 668 patients in a 1:1 ratio (DOACs group, 334 vs. VKAs group, 334). The DOACs group had similar mortality (4.8% vs. 1.6%; odds ratio (OR), 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.31-28.8; p = 0.31) among patients younger than 65 years, but mortality differed (3.0% vs. 6.6%; OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.99; p = 0.048) among patients older than 65 years. The proportion of patients discharged to skilled nursing facility/rehabilitation facility (50.0% vs. 50.6%; OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.72-1.32; p = 0.88) and to home (40.4% vs. 38.6%; OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.79-1.47; p = 0.64) were similar. Patients in the DOACs group received fewer fresh frozen plasma (p = 0.032), but packed red blood cells (p = 0.86) and prothrombin complex concentrate (p = 0.48) were similar. CONCLUSION: In this matched cohort of anticoagulated trauma patients, DOACs were associated with the decreased in-hospital mortality and decreased administration of fresh frozen plasma compared with VKAs among trauma patients 65 years or older taking anticoagulant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)514-522
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Volume89
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2020

Keywords

  • DOACs
  • Elderly
  • Propensity score matching
  • Trauma
  • VKA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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