This study describes an ecological study that evaluated the combined effects of working hours, income, and leisure time on suicide in all 47 prefectures of Japan. In men, the age-adjusted rate of suicide (per 100,000 population) was significantly correlated with working hours (r=0.587, p<0.0001) as well as significantly and negatively correlated with income (r=-0.517, p=0.0002) and times for the leisure activities of self-education (r=-0.447, p=0.0016) and hobbies (r=-0.511, p=0.0002). In addition, a stepwise multiple regression analysis identified time for leisure social activities as a determining factor in suicide rate, even after adjusting for working hours and income. However, the impact of time for leisure social activities on suicide rate was smaller than that of working hours and income. In contrast, none of these factors affected suicide rate in women. These results suggest that increasing leisure time may be useful for preventing suicide among men in Japan.
- Ecological study
- Leisure time
- Working hours
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis