Colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and traveler’s diarrhea attack rates among travelers to India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Basilua Andre Muzembo, Kei Kitahara, Ayumu Ohno, Keinosuke Okamoto, Shin Ichi Miyoshi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: India is an attractive destination for travelers. Unfortunately, numerous reports exist on traveler’s diarrhea (TD) and fecal colonization with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) among international travelers visiting India. Here, we systematically reviewed studies published on the acquisition of ESBL-EC and TD attack rates among international visitors to India. Methods: Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. A systematic search was performed using Google Scholar, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and gray literature from 2000 to December 2021, for studies containing data for ESBL-EC acquisition or TD experience related to a trip to India. Random effects models were used to compute the prevalence of ESBL-EC acquisition and TD attack. Results: The literature search yielded a total of 5023 records. Of these, 31 met our inclusion criteria for systematic review and only 17 could be meta-analyzed (9 for TD, and 8 for ESBL-EC). The overall pooled attack rate of TD was 39% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25–53%). In studies where travelers' memory was used to diagnose TD, the pooled attack rate of TD was slightly higher (42%, 95% CI: 21–64%) compared to those where TD was objectively documented (33%, 95% CI: 17–49%). There were significant risks to be colonized with ESBL-EC among the travelers who experienced TD. The pooled rate of ESBL-EC colonization was 72% (CI: 67–78%). Most ESBL-EC produced CTX-M-15 enzyme. Furthermore, most of the travelers who acquired ESBL-EC were from highly industrialized countries recruited from travel clinics: Canada (n = 80), Germany (n = 69), Netherlands (n = 20), Sweden (n = 18), Japan (n = 10), Finland (n = 8), USA (n = 7), Spain (n = 5), and Denmark (n = 3). Conclusions: TD pooled attack rate and ESBL-EC acquisition among international travelers visiting India were high in this study. However, we cannot make generalizations based upon this TD pooled attack rate for the current situation, due to a lack of current data. Our study highlights that travelers should be advised on TD to ensure that they do not disregard the risk of contracting TD and be better prepared as a result. It also illustrates the importance of international travel in acquiring antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli.

Original languageEnglish
Article number22
JournalTropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • India
  • International travelers
  • Meta-analysis
  • Traveler’s diarrhea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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