Cobalt chloride induces apoptosis and zinc chloride suppresses cobalt-induced apoptosis by Bcl-2 expression in human submandibular gland HSG cells

Kazumi Akita, Hirohiko Okamura, Kaya Yoshida, Hiroyuki Morimoto, Hiroaki Ogawa-Iyehara, Tatsuji Haneji

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10 Citations (Scopus)


To determine the effects of cobalt chloride on human submandibular gland cells, HSG cells were exposed to various concentrations of cobalt chloride. Cobalt chloride induced cytotoxicity and cell death in HSG cells as determined by phase-contrast microscopy and WST-1 cell viability assay. By using the Hoechst 33342 staining, marked nuclear condensation and fragmentation of chromatin were observed in cobalt chloride-treated cells. Cobalt chloride induced DNA ladder formation in HSG cells in both dose- and time-dependent manner with maximal effect at a concentration of 0.5 mM and 48 h, respectively. Cobalt chloride inhibited the expression of both Bcl-2 protein and mRNA in dose- and time-dependent manner. Zinc chloride recovered the cobalt-suppressed Bcl-2 expression and protected against cobaltinduced apoptosis in HSG cells. Our results show that the pathway of the apoptosis in HSG cells is regulated by cobalt chloride and zinc chloride. Our results also indicate that cobalt-induced apoptotic steps in HSG cells are related to the production of Bcl-2 protein.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)923-929
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Oncology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2007
Externally publishedYes



  • Apoptosis
  • Cobalt
  • HSG cell
  • Salivary gland
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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