Co-operative Bmp- and Fgf-signaling inputs convert skin wound healing to limb formation in urodele amphibians

Aki Makanae, Kazumasa Mitogawa, Akira Satoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

63 Citations (Scopus)


Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration capability, and their limb regeneration capability has been investigated as a representative phenomenon. In the early 19th century, nerves were reported to be an essential tissue for the successful induction of limb regeneration. Nerve substances that function in the induction of limb regeneration responses have long been sought. A new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established to identify the nerve factors. Skin wounding in urodele amphibians results in skin wound healing but never in limb induction. However, nerve deviation to the wounded skin induces limb formation in ALM. Thus, nerves can be considered to have the ability to transform skin wound healing to limb formation. In the present study, co-operative Bmp and Fgf application, instead of nerve deviation, to wounded skin transformed skin wound healing to limb formation in two urodele amphibians, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and newt (Pleurodeles waltl). Our findings demonstrate that defined factors can induce homeotic transformation in postembryonic bodies of urodele amphibians. The combination of Bmp and Fgf(s) may contribute to the development of novel treatments for organ regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-66
Number of pages10
JournalDevelopmental Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2014


  • Accessory limb model
  • Bmp
  • Fgf
  • Limb regeneration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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