Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a serious condition leading to kidney failure. We aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics of FSGS and its differences compared with minimal change disease (MCD) using cross-sectional data from the Japan Renal Biopsy Registry. In Analysis 1, primary FSGS (n = 996) were stratified by age into three groups: pediatric (< 18 years), adult (18–64 years), and elderly (≥ 65 years), and clinical characteristics were compared. Clinical diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome (NS) was given to 73.5% (97/132) of the pediatric, 41.2% (256/622) of the adult, and 65.7% (159/242) of the elderly group. In Analysis 2, primary FSGS (n = 306) and MCD (n = 1303) whose clinical diagnosis was nephrotic syndrome (NS) and laboratory data were consistent with NS, were enrolled. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to elucidate the variables which can distinguish FSGS from MCD. On multivariable analysis, higher systolic blood pressure, higher serum albumin, lower eGFR, and presence of hematuria associated with FSGS. In Japanese nationwide registry, primary FSGS patients aged 18–64 years showed lower rate of NS than those in other ages. Among primary nephrotic cases, FSGS showed distinct clinical features from MCD.
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