Purpose: To elucidate the genetic or environmental background for clinical features in the three major types of comitant strabismus. Methods: Interview based on a questionnaire asking background factors such as family history of strabismus and abnormalities in pregnancy and delivery was conducted with 101 consecutive patients with infantile esotropia (5-180 months of age), 83 with accommodative or partially accommodative esotropia (6-201 months of age), and 143 with intermittent exotropia (3-216 months of age) seen during 7 months from May to November 1998. The clinical features of strabismus obtained from medical records were analyzed statistically by logistic regression to determine their relation with these background factors. Results: In infantile esotropia, patients with family history of strabismus had a significantly higher chance of showing latent nystagmus (odds ratio, 3.553; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.077-11.717; P = .0373, logistic regression analysis). In a subgroup of 40 patients with infantile esotropia whose birth followed no abnormalities in pregnancy or delivery, patients with family history of strabismus had a significantly higher chance of showing inferior oblique muscle overaction (odds ratio, 7.714; 95% CI, 1.246-47.761; P = .0280), dissociated vertical deviation (odds ratio, 6.667; 95% CI, 1.176-37.787; P = .0321), and latent nystagmus (odds ratio, 7.333; 95% CI, 1.168-46.060; P = .0336). In accommodative or partially accommodative esotropia and intermittent exotropia, no relation was found between the clinical features and the background factors. Conclusions: Inferior oblique muscle overaction, dissociated vertical deviation, and latent nystagmus in infantile esotropia might have a genetic background.
- Abnormalities in pregnancy and delivery
- Family history
ASJC Scopus subject areas