Clinical characteristics and treatment of 50 cases of Blau syndrome in Japan confirmed by genetic analysis of the NOD2 mutation

Tomoko Matsuda, Naotomo Kambe, Yoko Ueki, Nobuo Kanazawa, Kazushi Izawa, Yoshitaka Honda, Atsushi Kawakami, Syuji Takei, Kyoko Tonomura, Masami Inoue, Hiroko Kobayashi, Ikuo Okafuji, Yoshihiko Sakurai, Naoki Kato, Yuta Maruyama, Yuzaburo Inoue, Yoshikazu Otsubo, Teruhiko Makino, Satoshi Okada, Ichiro KobayashiMasato Yashiro, Shusaku Ito, Hiroshi Fujii, Yasuhiro Kondo, Nami Okamoto, Shuichi Ito, Naomi Iwata, Utako Kaneko, Mototsugu Doi, Junichi Hosokawa, Osamu Ohara, Megumu K. Saito, Ryuta Nishikomori

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives To collect clinical information and NOD2 mutation data on patients with Blau syndrome and to evaluate their prognosis. Methods Fifty patients with NOD2 mutations were analysed. The activity of each NOD2 mutant was evaluated in HEK293 cells by reporter assay. Clinical information was collected from medical records through the attending physicians. Results The study population comprised 26 males and 24 females aged 0-61 years. Thirty-two cases were sporadic, and 18 were familial from 9 unrelated families. Fifteen different mutations in NOD2 were identified, including 2 novel mutations (p.W490S and D512V); all showed spontaneous nuclear factor kappa B activation, and the most common mutation was p.R334W. Twenty-six patients had fever at relatively early timepoints in the disease course. Forty-three of 47 patients had a skin rash. The onset of disease in 9 patients was recognised after BCG vaccination. Forty-five of 49 patients had joint lesions. Thirty-eight of 50 patients had ocular symptoms, 7 of which resulted in blindness. After the diagnosis of Blau syndrome, 26 patients were treated with biologics; all were antitumour necrosis factor agents. Only 3 patients were treated with biologics alone; the others received a biologic in combination with methotrexate and/or prednisolone. None of the patients who became blind received biologic treatment. Conclusions In patients with Blau syndrome, severe joint contractures and blindness may occur if diagnosis and appropriate treatment are delayed. Early treatment with a biologic agent may improve the prognosis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1492-1499
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of the rheumatic diseases
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2020


  • early rheumatoid arthritis
  • inflammation
  • sarcoidosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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