Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-positive marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is rare and undefined. It is unclear whether IgG4-positive MZLs have as favorable an outcome as MZLs in general. Also, correlation with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) and IgG4-positive MZLs is unknown. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews, we searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for all peer-reviewed articles using keywords including“IgG4” and “marginal zone lymphoma” from their inception to February 20, 2022. Twenty-two articles, including six observational studies and 24 cases from 16 case reports and case series, were included. Only one study had a comparative group, and the other five were exploratory observational studies. IgG4-positive MZLs commonly occurred in males (83.3%). It primarily involved ocular adnexa (41.7%) and skin (29.2%). Only 29.2% had concurrent IgG4-RD, and no expiration was noted. While most cases were treated with excision, resection, or clinical observation, 21.7% received rituximab-cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone as a first-line treatment. This systematic review summarizes the current understanding of the characteristics of IgG4-positive MZLs. While there seems to be IgG4-RD-related and de novo IgG4-positive MZLs, future research needs to clearly define MZL with polyclonal IgG4-positive cells and IgG4-producing lymphoma. Further studies are critical to clarifying long-term prognosis and optimal surveillance planning.
- IgG4-related disease
- marginal zone lymphoma
- systematic review
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine